It is yet worthwhile highlighting the fact that, from the viewpoint of Language Studies and of Translation Studies, the presupposition is not true, that the presence of a language of commerce or lingua franca would forcibly lead to the erasure of local languages and dialects. On the other hand, however, as I have been affirming, it pertains to languages and to socio-historical subjects, in general, the inescapable phenomena of mutation, translation, and hybridity, particularly inside conflict areas. I propose a discussion on Nheengatu language, which is often Is it a contemporary version of the ancient Tupi and, if that is the case, what is there in Nheengatu that already existed in the classic language? In 2015, I also took part of courses for teacher training and for continuing education, this time directed towards the learning of the Nheengatu language on the part of indigenous teachers. STANDS4 LLC, 2020. A person who habitually corrects or criticizes the language usage of others. The law claims in its Article 26-A: “It is now mandatory to have studies on Afro and Indigenous Brazilian culture and history in elementary and secondary public schools” (This information may be captured at http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2007-2010/2008/lei/l11645.htm). Nheenga ramé muíri amu nheenga ita uiku.

Translating into Nheengatu, we would read: Pausapé, ambúri yepé maã yamaité arama: ti aikué yepé tetama ntu upé yepé nheenga. wií yané iwí upé. A person's internal condition of jubilation, enthusiasm, The semantic system only works, for that very reason, when immersed inside a specific semiotic continuum, filled with multivariant semiotic models placed in a sequence of hierarchic levels that call for translation as part of its ontology, so that the transitions between different systems and its levels may happen. Self-identification brings to itself the territoriality and the citizens’ demands for their rights to property, inside a conflict arena, particularly in this case. The Tupy people, great river navigators, hunters and farmers, were endowed with a dominating spirit (…) It is from this period on that Tupy language and culture expanded to many peoples north and south of the country ( Jecupé, 1998: p. 45 , my translation into English). This course was given to 45 teachers from different ethnic groups, like Arapium, Borary, Maytapu, Tupinambá, Cara Preta, Cumaruara, Tapajó, Tupaiú, Jaraki, Apiaká, and Juruna. 223). The characteristic of regularly using vulgar language, especially strong profanities; a person having this characteristic. 2. point of view of a Poetics of Relation within a complex, contradictory and According to Lotman (2005) , there are no isolated monosemantic systems: their articulation is based on a heuristic necessity, since nothing taken in isolation may, in fact, be effective or meaningful. In other words, Nheengatu is not―nor could it be―a language imposed entirely by the colonizers―it implies, instead, a phenomenon happening in South America in a sui generis way, that was very different, for instance, from the imposition of vernacular Latin in the Iberian Peninsula. The first phase of the field research developed in 2010 in the Upper Rio Negro region―nicknamed “Cabeça de Cachorro”/“Dog Head” thanks to its design in the northwest portion of the map of Brazil―helped me understand in loco the oral and written modalities of the various languages circulating there. Considered the third largest municipality in Brazil by territorial area, the city’s population in the urban area is around 15,000. In order to reflect on the amplitude of such a phenomenon, I will bring Ilari’s (2003) words which we can transpose to our discussion on the hegemonic role Tupi already played before the European colonizers arrived at the Brazilian territory, with the necessary reservation in what concerns the erasing aspects mentioned, which I rather understand as creolization aspects: The history of the romance languages is a good example in this sense: the speeches that gained the status of national languages not only went through a process of transformation in koiné (characterized by erasing the more local forms), but also through a slow process of elaborating the necessary linguistic resources so as to attend the demands created by the growing dimensions of interests and by the cultural diversification. The Production of Different Artifacts and the Transition to the Nheengatu Language in Santarém. From 2013 on, I started to develop the second phase of the research. It is impossible, therefore, to have a fluid or immediate transition: it must pass through the so-called bilingual filters, whose existence is based on the presupposition that the passage happens inside a heterogeneous space. I also could note that the Education Department for the city had chosen Nheengatu in order to accomplish the official obligation of teaching an indigenous language in the so-called differentiated indigenous education. São Gabriel da Cachoeira, on its turn, is one of the few cities in which other languages are considered with an official status. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. including references in the areas of Applied Linguistics, Culture Semiotics and . Therefore, on the one hand, I reckon it is undeniable that the preservation and revitalization of indigenous languages are of utmost importance for the maintenance of cultures and the penetration inside certain issues that may be lost forever. Hundreds of different aboriginals have spoken it. Please excuse my swearing or bad language.

3. The Nheengatu language, often spelled Nhengatu, is an Amerindian language of a Tupi–Guarani family. Contact with the Portuguese language, the language of the colonizers, i.e., of the people who came with the political and economic objective of dominating Brazilian territory from then on, also made it possible for new processes of hybridization and creolization, not unusual in the history of the evolution of people and of their languages.

I learned together with them some elements of Nheengatu, and at a certain point during the course, it was suggested that the participants should elaborate a reading book to be used by the students.

Ribeiro (PPGL/UFSCar) made the translations into Nheengatu. I aimed at verifying the research objectives above mentioned. According to Russian semioticist Yuri Lotman (2005), a sum of bilingual filters represent the semiotic frontier: as it passes through the filters, a text (be it oral or written) is translated into another or into other languages. The goal at this point was to elaborate bilingual learning and teaching material.

Common phrase used to ask how to express an idea or translate a word, often in a foreign language. It was during that period that Tupy began to dominate.

the ordinary usage of language, everyday speech. double Dutch, all Greek, like a foreign language, A wish of happiness. envisage it from the perspective concerning the tactics constructed by the At that time, in July of 2010, with the assistance of the local Secretary Department, I could get in contact with the many different initiatives towards the production of didactic material in indigenous languages, especially in the three co-official Indigenous languages in this city. Anyway, how does one explain that this could have happened: is that, after all, the way languages function and thrive, through government interventions? Besides that, it is interesting to consider the semiosphere, the socio-historic topos, and the form in which, within this circumstance, i.e., this space-temporal milieu, identity processes are underway, once, as we have been viewing, the “caboclo” ethos may be converted into an indigenous ethos through the appropriation of a language.

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