The God of the Jews has secularized himself and become the universal God. In Germany, where no political State, no State as State exists, the Jewish question is a purely theological question. Consequently religion becomes its instrument, and it is the State of hypocrisy. Judaism has persisted alongside of Christianity not only as religious criticism of Christianity, not only as the embodiment of doubt in the religious parentage of Christianity, but equally because Judaism has maintained itself, and even received its supreme development, in Christian society. Article 8 of the Constitution of 1793: Security consists in the protection accorded by society to each of its members for the preservation of his person, his rights, and his property.

: every individual is regarded as a uniform atom resting on its own bottom. It's not as sensational as Arthur Kemp purports; nevertheless, Marx was definitely aware of the problems of Jewish culture, which is described in part two of this book: "The Capacity of Present-day Jews and Christians to Become Free". Has he therefore the right to demand of another this abdication of religion? Judaism could create no new world; it could only draw the new world creations and world relations within the orbit of its activity, because the practical need whose rationale is egoism remains a passive state, which does not extend itself by spontaneous act, but only expands with the development of social conditions.

There are even North American States where "the constitution does not impose religious beliefs or the practice of a cult as a condition of political privileges" (l. c. p. 225). Judaism has survived not in spite of, but by virtue of history. Particularly relevant in the context of current debates about Identity politics and the relevance of universal emancipatory politics. "The Jew who in Vienna, for example, is only tolerated, determines by his financial power the fate of the whole Empire. But the individual as a member of civic society, the unpolitical individual, necessarily appears as the natural individual. His argument is actually pretty predictable--religion in general is messed up, and the Jewish religion in particular is really just about capitalism, so once capitalism has been gotten rid of, Judaism will go away, and then Jewish people won't have to worry about being discriminated against.

What is the secular cult of the Jew?

Civic, political emancipation. The throwing off of the political yoke was at the same time the throwing off of the bond which had curbed the egoistic spirit of civic society. But what State?

It had to ask: what kind of emancipation are we concerned with? The chimerical nationality of the Jew is the nationality of the merchant, of the monied man generally. Only where the political State exists in its completeness can the relation of the Jew, of the religious man generally, to the political State, and therefore the relation of religion to the State, be studied in its special features and its purity. Liberty is the power which belongs to man to do everything which does not injure the rights of others. The species-relation itself, the relation between man and woman, etc., becomes an object of trade!
("Philosophy of Right," Eng. Declaration of the rights of man and of citizenship, 1791, article 10: No penalty should attach to the holding of religious opinions. When Bauer asks Jews: Have you the right from your standpoint to crave political emancipation?

Early Marx, sharp and polemical articulating the relationships between democratic struggles (political emancipation) and the communist horizon (human emancipation). ", "The idea of the rights of man was first discovered in the last century so far as the Christian world is concerned.

Whereas Bauer says of the opponents of Jewish emancipation: "Their mistake was that they assumed the Christian State to be the only real State, and did not subject it to the same criticism that they applied to Judaism," we find Bauer's mistake to consist in the fact that it is only the Christian State, and not the "general State," that he subjects to criticism, that he does not investigate the relation of political emancipation to human emancipation, and consequently lays down conditions which are only explicable from an uncritical confusion of political emancipation with general human emancipation. In any case, the bourgeois, like the Jew, remains only sophistically in political life, just as the citizen remains a Jew or a bourgeois only sophistically; but this sophistry is not personal.
(Robespierre jeune, "Parliamentary History of the French Revolution." If the Jew wants to be emancipated from the Christian State, then he should demand that the Christian State abandon its religious prejudice. 14.). Soviet socialism obtained similar ideas from Marx and this publication. Not until the real, individual man is identical with the citizen, and has become a generic being in his empirical life, in his individual work, in his individual relationships, not until man has recognized and organized his own capacities as social capacities, and consequently the social force is no longer divided by the political power, not until then will human emancipation be achieved. What was the character of the old society? As against the latter, which declares the secular power to be its serving body, the State is impotent. The freedom in question is the freedom of the individual as an isolated atom thrown back upon itself. The question of the relation of political emancipation becomes for us the question of the relation of political emancipation to human emancipation. Here Christianity achieves the practical expression of its universal religious significance, in that the most various philosophies are marshalled in the form of Christianity, and, what is more, other members of society are not required to subscribe to Christianity, but to some kind of religion.

Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. So long as he is a Jew, the limiting quality which makes him a Jew must triumph over the human quality which binds him as a man to other men, and must separate him from gentiles. We’d love your help. What was the foundation of the Jewish religion?

As The Hunters wallowed in the valley of the shadow of death, they turned to the stars to point them on their path.

In that State the Jew possesses the privilege of being a Jew. Consequently we explain the religious handicap of the free citizens from their secular handicap. It is not Christianity, but the human basis of Christianity which is the basis of this State. The emancipation of Jews in itself is no work for Christians.

But the right of man to freedom is not based upon the connection of man with man, but rather on the separation of man from man.

And security?

Or do Jews demand to be put on an equal footing with Christian subjects? ", "Can they really be claimed by the Jew? Take from religion its excommunicating power, and it exists no longer," p. 66. How is this antagonism resolved? "It is precisely its foundation, the need which assures to bourgeois society its existence and guarantees its necessity, which exposes its existence to constant dangers, maintains in it an uncertain element and converts the latter into a constantly changing mixture of poverty and wealth, distress and prosperity," p. 8.

Consequently it has robbed the whole world—the world of mankind as well as Nature—of its peculiar value. Will the Jew abandon his religious prejudice? The so-called Christian State needs the Christian religion in order to complete itself as a State. But it proclaims above all the right of man to enjoy and dispose of his property, his income, and the fruit of his toil and his industry according to his pleasure. The German Jew is particularly affected by the lack of political emancipation in general and the pronounced Christianity of the State.

At this point, where the question ceases to be theological, Bauer's criticism ceases to be critical. in 1939 Soviet socialism & German socialism joined to launch WWII, invading Poland together, & onward to genocides.

As a Jew, he has rights which a Christian has not. 1.

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